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Review Papers

Waugh, D.W., V. Eyring and D.E. Kinnison, PDF Document: Stratospheric Ozone in the 21st Century, in “Stratospheric Ozone Depletion and Climate Change”, R. Muller, Ed., Royal Society of Chemistry, 2011.

Waugh, D.W. and L.M. Polvani, PDF Document: Stratospheric Polar Vortices, in “The Stratosphere: Dynamics, Transport and Chemistry. A festschrift celebrating Alan Plumb’s 60th birthday”, L.M. Polvani, A.H. Sobel and D.W. Waugh, Eds., American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., 2010.

Waugh, D.W., and Hall, T.M., PDF Document: Age of stratospheric air: Theory, observations, and models Rev. Geophys., 40 (4), 10.1029/2000RG000101, 2002

Submitted or In Press

Waugh D.W, KD Stewart, AMC Hogg, MH England,  Interbasin differences in ocean ventilation in response to variations in the Southern Annular Mode JGR Oceans, submitted, 2020


Kerr GH, DW Waugh, S Miller, Jet Stream-surface tracer relationships: Mechanism and sensitivity to source region, Geophys. Res. Lett., January, 2021


Stewart KD, AMC Hogg, MH England, DW Waugh Response of the Southern  Ocean overturning circulation to extreme Southern Annular Mode conditions. Geophys. Res. Lett., November, 2020

Kerr GH, DW Waugh, SA Strode, SD Steenrod, and SE Strahan, Surface ozone-meteorology relationships: Spatial variations and the role of the jet stream, JGR Atmosphere, October 2020

Waugh, DW, Z He, B Zaitchik, RD Peng, GB Diette, NN Hansel, EC Matsui, … M McCormack. Indoor heat exposure in Baltimore: does outdoor temperature matter? International Journal of Biometeorology, October 2020.

Yang H, DW Waugh, C Orbe, G Chen, Dependence of Atmospheric Transport into the Arctic on the meridional extent of the Hadley cell. Geophys.Res. Lett., October, 2020

Waugh D.W, A. Banerjee, J Fyfe, and L.M. Polvani,  Contrasting recent trends in Southern Hemisphere Westerlies across different ocean basins, Geophysical Res. Lett., 47, e2020GL088890, 2020.

Thomas, J., W. Waugh; A. Gnanadesikan,  Relationship between age and oxygen along Line W in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean, Ocean Sciences Journal, July, 2020.

Staten P.W., K.M. Grise, S.M. Davis, K.B. Karnauskas, D.W. Waugh, A. Maycock, Q. Fu, K. Cook, O. Adam, I.R. Simpson, R.J. Allen, K. Rosenlof, G. Chen, C.C. Ummenhofer, X-W Quan, J.P. Kossin, N. A. Davis, S-W Son, Tropical widening: from global variations to regional impacts, Bulletin of the Amer. Meteorolog. Soc., June, 2020.

Waugh DW and TWH Haine, How rapidly do the southern subtropical oceans respond to wind stress changes? JGR Oceans, June, 2020

Scott, R., W. Seviour, D.W. Waugh, Forcing of the Martian polar annulus by Hadley cell transport and latent heating, QJRMS, May, 2020.

Toigo, A., D.W. Waugh, S. Guzewich, Atmospheric Transport into Polar Regions on Mars in Different Orbital Epochs, Icarus, 347, 113816, 2020

Tweedy, O., L. Oman, and D.W. Waugh, Seasonality of the MJO impact on upper troposphere/lower stratosphere temperature, circulation and composition, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 77,4, 2020.

A. Banerjee, J.C. Fyfe, L.M. Polvani, D.W Waugh and K.-L. Chang: A pause in Southern Hemisphere circulation trends due to the Montreal Protocol, Nature, 579, 544–548 (2020)

Orbe C. et al., 2020, Description and Evaluation of the Specified-Dynamics Experiment in the Chemistry-Climate Model Initiative (CCMI), Atmos. Chem. & Physics,


Bedaso, Z.K., DeLuca, N.M., Levin, N.E., Zaitchik, B.F., Waugh, D.W., Wu, S.Y., Harman, C.J. and Shanko, D., 2019. Spatial and temporal variation in the isotopic composition of Ethiopian precipitation. Journal of Hydrology, p.124364.

Kerr GH, DW Waugh, SA Strode, SD Steenrod, LD Oman, and SE Strahan, 2019, Disentangling the Drivers of the Ozone-Temperature Relationship over the United States, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres.

Conway, J, G.E. Bodeker, D.W. Waugh, D.J. Murphy, C. Cameron, J. Lewis et al., 2019, Using Project Loon super-pressure balloon observations to investigate the inertial peak in the intrinsic wind spectrum in the mid-latitude stratosphere, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres.

Seviour WJM, F Codron, EW Doddridge, David Ferreira, A Gnanadesikan, M Kelley, Y Kostov, J Marshall, LM Polvani, JL Thomas, DW Waugh, 2019, The Southern Ocean sea surface temperature response to ozone depletion: A multi-model comparison, Journal of Climate, 32, 5107-5121.

Waugh, D.W., A. McC. Hogg, P Spence, M. H. England, T. W.N. Haine, 2019, Response of Southern Ocean ventilation to changes in mid-latitude westerly winds,  J Climate, 32, 5345-5361.

Menzel, M.E., D. W. Waugh, K. Grise, 2019, Relationships between the Hadley Cell and Subtropical Jet, Geophys. Res. Lett., 46, 7045-7053.

Yang, H., Waugh, D.W., Orbe, C., Patra, P.K., Jöckel, P., Lamarque, J.-F., et al., 2019. Evaluating simulations of interhemispheric transport: Interhemispheric exchange
time versus SF6Geophysical Research
Letters, 46, 1113–1120.

Grise, K., S.M. Davis, I. R. Simpson, D. W. Waugh, Q. Fu, R.J. Allen, K.H. Rosenlof, C.C. Ummenhofer, K.B. Karnuaskas, A.C. Maycock, X. Quan, T. Birner,
and P.W. Staten, 2019 Recent Tropical Expansion: Natural Variability or Forced Response? J Climate,

Waugh D. W., A.D. Toigo, S.D. Guzewich, 2019, Age of martian air: Time scales for martian atmospheric transport Icarus, 317, 148-157.


Yang H., D.W. Waugh, C Orbe, G. Zeng, O. Morgenstern, D.E. Kinnison, J-F Lamarque, S Tilmes, D.A. Plummer, P. Jöckel, S.E. Strahan, K.A. Stone, and R. Schofield, 2018, Large-scale transport into the Arctic: the roles of the midlatitude jet and the Hadley Cell, Atmos. Chem. Phys.

Adam, O., Grise, K. M., Staten, P., Simpson, I. R., Davis, S. M., Davis, N. A., Waugh, D. W., and Birner, T., 2018, The TropD software package: Standardized methods for calculating Tropical Width Diagnostics,  Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 4339-4357.

Tweedy O.V., D.W Waugh, W Randel, M Abalos, L Oman, D Kinnison, 2018, The impact of boreal summer ENSO events on tropical lower stratospheric ozone, J Geophys. Res., 123(17).

Ndarana, T, MJ Bopape, D Waugh, L Dyson, 2018, The influence of the lower stratosphere on ridging Atlantic Ocean anticyclones over South Africa, J Climate 31 (15), 6175-6187.

Waugh, D.W. M. Grise, W. J. M. Seviour, S.M. Davis, N. Davis, O. Adam, S.-W. Son, I R Simpson, P. W. Staten, A. C. Maycock, C.C. Ummenhofer, T. Birner , and A. Ming, 2018, Revisiting the Relationship among Metrics of Tropical Expansion, J Climate, 18, 7565–7581.

Gaige, K, and D.W. Waugh, 2018, Connections between Summer Air Pollution and Stagnation, Environ. Res. Lett., 13 (8), 084001.

Scott, AA, DW Waugh, BF Zaitchik, 2018, Reduced Urban Heat Island intensity under warmer conditions, Environmental Research Letters 13 (6).

Orbe, C., Yang, H., Waugh, D. W., et al., 2018,  Large-Scale Tropospheric Transport in the Chemistry Climate Model Initiative (CCMI) Simulations, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 2018,

Wu, X., Yang, H., Waugh, D. W., Orbe, C., Tilmes, S., and Lamarque,J.-F., 2018. Spatial and Temporal Variability of Interhemispheric Transport Times, Atmos. Chem. Phys.,

Yang, H,Waugh,D.W.,&Holzer, M. 2018. Decoupling the effects of transport and chemical loss on tropospheric composition: A model study of path-dependent life-times. Journal of Geophysical Research:Atmospheres, 123, 2320–2335.

Seviour, W. J. M., Davis, S. M.,
Grise, K. M., & Waugh, D. W , 2018. Large uncertainty in the relative rates of dynamical and hydrological tropical expansion. Geophysical Research Letters, 45,


Gnanadesikan, A. A., A. A. Scott, M.-A. Pradal, W. J. M. Seviour, and D. W. Waugh (2017). Regional responses to black carbon aerosols: The importance of air-sea interaction, J. Geophys. Res., doi/10.1002/2017JD027589.

Orbe, C., Oman, L.D., Strahan, S.E., Waugh, D.W., Pawson, S., Takacs, L.L. and Molod, A.M., 2017. Large‐Scale Atmospheric Transport in GEOS Replay Simulations . Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems. 9, 2545–2560.

Thomas, J., Waugh, D. and Gnanadesikan, A., 2017. Relationship between ocean carbon and heat multi-decadal variability. Journal of Climate.

Scott, A.A., Misiani, H., Okoth, J., Jordan, A., Gohlke, J., Ouma, G., Arrighi, J., Zaitchik, B.F., Jjemba, E., Verjee, S. and Waugh, D.W., 2017. Temperature and heat in informal settlements in Nairobi. PloS one, 12(11),

Tweedy, O.V., D.W. Waugh, R.S. Stolarski, L.D. Oman, W.J Randel, M.Abalos, 2017, Hemispheric differences in the annual cycle of tropical lower stratosphere transport and tracers, J. Geophys. Res. ,

Tweedy, O.V, N.A Kramarova, S.E. Strahan, P.A. Newman, L. Coy, W.J Randel, M. Park, D.W. Waugh, and S. Frith, 2017, Response of Trace Gases to the Disrupted 2015-2016 Quasi-Biennial Oscillation, Atmos. Chem. Physics , 7, 6813-6823.

Chen G., C. Orbe, and D.W. Waugh 2017, The Role of Monsoon-like Zonally Asymmetric Heating in Interhemispheric Transport, Journal of Geophysical Research – Atmospheres , 122, 3282–3298.

Seviour, W.J.M, D.W. Waugh, R.K. Scott 2017, The Stability of Mars’ Annular Polar Vortex, J. Atmos Sci., 74, 1533-1547.

Garfinkel C.,V Aquila, DW Waugh, and LD Oman, 2017: Time varying changes in the simulated structure of the Brewer Dobson Circulation, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 17, 1313–1327,

Polvani, LM., L. Wang, V Aquila, DW Waugh, 2017: The impact of ozone depleting substances on tropical upwelling, as revealed by the absence of lower stratospheric cooling since the late 1990s, J Climate, 30, 2523-2534,

Seviour, W.J.M, D. W. Waugh, L. M. Polvani, G.J. P. Correa, C.I. Garfinkel, 2017: Robustness of the simulated tropospheric response to ozone depletion, J Climate, , 30, 2577-2585.

Seviour, W.J.M, A. Gnanadesikan, M.-A. Pradal, D.W. Waugh, 2017: Transient response of the Southern Ocean to changing ozone: Regional responses and physical mechanisms , J Climate, , 30, 2577-2585.

Toigo, A.D, D. W. Waugh, and S. D. Guzewich, 2017, What Causes Mars’ Annular Polar Vortices? Geophys. Res. Lett. to 44, 71-78.

Orbe, C., D. W. Waugh, H. Yang, J-F Lamarque, S. Tilmes, D.E. Kinnison, 2017, Tropospheric Transport Differences Between Models Using the Same Large-Scale Meteorological Fields, Geophys. Res. Lett.,

Waugh, D.W, A Sobel, L.M. Polvani, 2017: What is the Polar Vortex and how does it influence weather? Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 98, 37-44.

Scott, A. A., Zaitchik, B., Waugh, D., & O’Meara, K. (2017). Intra-urban temperature variability in Baltimore. Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 56, 159-171.


McCormack, M. C., Belli, A. J., Waugh, D., Matsui, E. C., Peng, R. D., Williams, D. A., … & Breysse, P. N. (2016). Respiratory Effects of Indoor Heat and the Interaction with Air Pollution in COPD. Annals of the American Thoracic Society, , vol 13, 12,

Solomon A, M. Polvani,  D.W. Waugh and S.M. Davis, 2016: Contrasting Upper and Lower Atmospheric Metrics of Tropical Expansion in the Southern Hemisphere,  Geophys. Res. Lett., 43, doi:10.1002/2016GL070917.

Waugh D. W., A.D. Toigo, S.D. Guzewich, S.J. Greybush, R.J. Wilson , L. Montabone, 2016: Martian Polar Vortices: Comparison of Reanalyses, JGR-Planets, 121, doi:10.1002/2016JE005093

Garfinkel C.,V Aquila, DW Waugh, and LD Oman, 2016: Time varying changes in the simulated structure of the Brewer Dobson Circulation, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., doi:10.5194/acp-2016-523, 2016

Seviour, W.J.M, A. Gnanadesikan, D.W. Waugh,  2016: The Transient Response of the Southern Ocean to Stratospheric Ozone Depletion, J. Climate, 29, 7383-7396.

Orbe, C., D.W. Waugh, P.A. Newman, S. Steenrod, 2016: The Transit-Time Distribution from the Northern Hemisphere Midlatitude Surface, J Atmos Sci, 73, 3785-3802

Aquila, V., W. H. Swartz, P.R. Colarco, S. Pawson, L.M. Polvani, R.S. Stolarski, D.W. Waugh, 2016: Attributing changes in global stratospheric temperatures using model integrations with incrementally added single forcings, J Geophys. Res., 121, doi:10.1002/ 2015JD023841.

Guzewich, S.D., A. Toigo, D.W. Waugh,  2016: The Effect of Dust on the Martian Polar Vortices, Icarus, 278, 100-118.

Li, F., YV Vikhliaev, PA Newman, S Pawson, J Perlwitz, DW Waugh, and AR Douglass, 2016: Impacts of Interactive Stratospheric Chemistry on Antarctic and Southern Ocean Climate Change, J Climate, 29, 3199-3218.

Zaitchik BF, K O’Meara, K Baja, MC McCormack, AA Scott and DW Waugh (2016) B’more Cool: Monitoring the Urban Heat Island at High Density for Health and Urban Design. Earthzine.


Garfinkel CI, D.W. Waugh, L. M. Polvani, 2015: Recent Hadley cell expansion: the role of internal atmospheric variability, Geophy. Res. Lett., 42 doi:10.1002/2015GL066942.

Orbe, C., P. A. Newman, D. W. Waugh, M. Holzer, L. D. Oman, F. Li, and L. M. Polvani, 2015: Air-mass Origin in the Arctic. Part II: Response to increased greenhouse gases . Journal of Climate, 28, 23, 9105-9120.

Orbe, C., P. A. Newman, D. W. Waugh, M. Holzer, L. D. Oman, F. Li, and L. M. Polvani, 2015: Air-mass Origin in the Arctic. Part I: Seasonality . Journal of Climate, 28, 12, 4997-5014.

Saunders, R.O, and D. W. Waugh, 2015, PDF Document: Variability of summer PM2.5 in the Northeastern United States and tracing of potential sources using MERRAero reanalysis , Atmos. Env., 117, 259-270.

Waugh, D.W, C.I. Garfinkel, L.M. Polvani, 2015 PDF Document: Drivers of the recent tropical expansion in the Southern Hemisphere: Changing SSTs or ozone depletion? J Climate, 28, 6581-6588.

Thomas J.L., D. W. Waugh, A Gnanadesikan, 2015 PDF Document: Southern Hemisphere extratropical circulation: Recent trends and natural variability . Geophys. Res. Lett., 42, doi:10.1002/2015GL064521.

Orbe, C., D. W. Waugh, and P. A. Newman (2015), PDF Document: Air-Mass Origin in the Tropical Lower Stratosphere: The Influence of Asian Boundary Layer Air . Geophys. Res. Lett., doi: 10.1002/2015GL063937.

Holzer, M., and D. W. Waugh (2015), PDF Document: Interhemispheric transit-time distributions and path-dependent lifetimes constrained by measurements of SF6, CFCs, and CFC replacements , Geophys. Res. Lett., 42, doi:10.1002/2015GL064172.

Ryoo, J.-M., D. E. Waliser, D. W. Waugh, S. Wong, E. J. Fetzer, and I. Fung (2015), Classification of atmospheric river events on the U.S. west coast using a trajectory model, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 119, doi:10.1002/2014JD022023.

Wang, L., and D.W. Waugh, 2015 PDF Document: Seasonality in Future Tropical Lower Stratospheric Temperature Trends , Journal of Geophysical Research – Atmospheres, 120, 980–991, doi:10.1002/2014JD022090.

Stolarski RS, AE Douglass, LD Oman and D W Waugh, 2015 PDF Document: Impact of future nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide emissions on the stratospheric ozone layer , Environ. Res. Lett., 10 034011 doi:10.1088/1748-9326/10/3/034011


Orbe C., M. Holzer, L.M. Polvani, D.W. Waugh, F. Li, L.D. Oman and P.A. Newman: Seasonal Ventilation of the Stratosphere: Robust Diagnostics from One-Way Flux Distributions, J. Geophys. Res. 119, 293-306, 2014

Aquila, V., C. I. Garfinkel, P. A. Newman, L. D. Oman, and D. W. Waugh (2014), PDF Document: Modifications of the quasi-biennial oscillation by a geoengineering perturbation of the stratospheric aerosol layer , Geophys. Res. Lett., 41, 1738–1744, doi:10.1002/2013GL058818.

Stolarski, R. S., D. W. Waugh, L. Wang,
L. D. Oman, A. R. Douglass, and P. A. Newman (2014), PDF Document: Seasonal variation of ozone in the tropical lower stratosphere: Southern tropics are different from northern tropics , J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 119, doi:10.1002/2013JD021294.

Urquhart EA, Zaitchik BF, Waugh DW, Guikema SD, Del Castillo CE (2014) PDF Document: Uncertainty in Model Predictions of Vibrio vulnificus Response to Climate Variability and Change: A Chesapeake Bay Case Study . PLoS ONE 9(5): e98256. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0098256

Waugh DW. 2014 PDF Document: Changes in the ventilation of the southern oceans . Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 372: 20130269.

Garfinkel, C. I. and D. W. Waugh, PDF Document: Tropospheric Rossby Wave Breaking and Variability of the Latitude of the Eddy-driven Jet , J. Climate, 2014. 27 (18), 7069-7085

Berman, J.D, D W Waugh, P N Breysse, R H White, F C Curriero, 2014, Improved estimation of ozone air pollution concentrations using both air quality monitoring data and output from the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model , Environmental Technology & Innovation, doi:10.1016/j.eti.2014.10.003


Waugh, D.W., et al. PDF Document: Tropospheric SF6: Age of Air from the Northern Hemisphere Mid-latitude Surface , JGR, 118, 11429-11441, 2013 2013

Wang, L., P. J. Kushner, D.W. Waugh, PDF Document: Southern hemisphere stationary wave response to changes of ozone and greenhouse gases , Journal of Climate, 26, 10205-10217, 2013.

Garfinkel, C.I., D. W. Waugh, L.D. Oman, L. Wang, and M.M. Hurwitz, PDF Document: Temperature trends in the tropical upper troposphere and lower stratosphere: connections with sea surface temperatures and implications for water vapor and ozone , JGR, in press, 2013.

Garfinkel, C. I., M. M. Hurwitz, L. D. Oman, D. W. Waugh, PDF Document: Contrasting Effects of Central Pacific and Eastern Pacific El Nino on Stratospheric Water Vapor, GRL, 40, 4115–4120, 2013

Garfinkel, C. I., L. D. Oman, E. A. Barnes, D. W. Waugh, M. M. Hurwitz, A. M. Molod, PDF Document: Connections between the Spring Breakup of the Southern Hemisphere Polar Vortex, Stationary Waves, and Air-Sea Roughness , J. Atmos. Sci. 70, 2137-2151, 2013

Garfinkel, C.I., M. M. Hurwitz, D. W. Waugh, A. H. Butler, PDF Document: Are the Teleconnections of Central Pacific and Eastern Pacific El Ni˜no Distinct in Boreal Wintertime?, Climate Dynamics, doi:10.1007/s00382-012-1570-2.

Garfinkel, C. I., D. W. Waugh, E. P. Gerber, PDF Document: The Effect of Tropospheric Jet Latitude on Coupling between the Stratospheric Polar Vortex and the Troposphere , J. Clim, 26, 2077-2095, 2013.

Guzewich, S., et al. High Altitude Dust Layers on Mars: Observations with the Thermal Emission Spectrometer, JGR, 118,1177-1194, 2013

Guzewich, S., et al. The Impact of a Realistic Vertical Dust Distribution on the Simulation of the Martian General Circulation, JGR, 118, 980-993, 2013

Orbe C, M Holzer, LM Polvani, and DW Waugh, PDF Document: Air-mass origin as a diagnostic of climate change in tropospheric transport , J Geophys. Res., 118, 1459-1470, 2013.

Tanhua. T., D.W. Waugh, J., Bullister, PDF Document: Estimating changes in ocean ventilation from early 1990s CFC- 12 and late 2000s SF6 measurements , Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, 927-932, 2013.

Waugh, D.W., F. Primeau, T. Devries, and M. Holzer, PDF Document: Recent changes in the ventilation of the southern oceans , Science, 339, 568, doi:10.1126/science.1225411, 2013

Oman, L, et al. PDF Document: The Ozone Response to ENSO in Aura Satellite Measurements and a Chemistry-Climate Simulation, J. Geophys. Res., 118, 1-12, 2013


Garfinkel, C.I., T. A. Shaw, D. L. Hartmann, D. W. Waugh, PDF Document: Does the Holton-Tan Mechanism Explain How the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation Modulates the Arctic Polar Vortex? J Atmos. Sci., 69, doi: 10.1175/JAS-D-11-0209.1, 2012.

Wang, L. and D. W. Waugh, PDF Document: Chemistry-climate model simulations of recent trends in lower stratospheric temperatures and stratospheric residual circulation , J. Geophys. Res., 117, 10.1029/2011JD017130 2012.

Ndarana, T., D. W. Waugh, L. M. Polvani, G.J.P. Correa, E.P. Gerber, PDF Document: Antarctic Ozone Depletion and trends in tropospheric Rossby wave breaking , Atmos. Sci. Letters, 10.1002/asl.384, 2012.

Guzewich, S. D., E.R. Talaat, D.W. Waugh, PDF Document: Observations of Planetary Waves and Nonmigrating Tides by the Mars Climate Sounder, J. Geophys. Res., 117, 10.1029/2011JE003924, 2012.

Waugh, D.W., S. R. Keating, M-L. Chen, PDF Document: Diagnosing Ocean Stirring: Comparison of Relative Dispersion and Finite-Time Lyapunov Exponents , Journal of Physical Oceanography, 42, 1173-1185, 2012.

Garfinkel, C.I., A. H. Butler, D. W. Waugh, M. M. Hurwitz, L. M. Polvani, PDF Document: Why might sudden stratospheric warmings occur with similar frequency in El Nino and La Nina winters? , J. Geophys. Res., 117, D19, doi:10.1029/2012JD017777, 2012.

Li, F., D. W. Waugh, A.R. Douglass, P.A. Newman, S.E. Strahan, J. Ma, J. E. Nielsen, and Q. Liang, PDF Document: Long-Term Changes in Stratospheric Age Spectra in the 21st Century in the Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry-Climate Model (GEOSCCM), J. Geophys. Res., 117, D20, doi:10.1029/2012JD017905, 2012.

Garfinkel C. I., S. B. Feldstein, D. W. Waugh, C. Yoo, S. Lee, PDF Document: Observed Connection between Stratospheric Sudden Warmings and the Madden-Julian Oscillation , GRL, 39, L18807, 2012

Lang, C., D.W. Waugh, et al., PDF Document: The impact of greenhouse gases on past changes in tropospheric ozone. J Geophys. Res., 117, No. D23, D23304, 2012.

Li, F., D.W. Waugh, et al., PDF Document: Seasonal Variations of Stratospheric Age Spectra in GEOSCCM , J. Geophy. Res., 117, .doi:10.1029/2011JD016877, 2012.


Waugh, D.W., V.Eyring and D.E. Kinnison, PDF Document: Stratospheric Ozone in the 21st Century, in “Stratospheric Ozone Depletion and Climate Change”, R. Muller, Ed., Royal Society of Chemistry, 2011.

Cionni, I, et al., PDF Document: Ozone database in support of CMIP5 simulations: results and corresponding radiative forcing, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 11267–11292, 2011.

Oman, L., et al., PDF Document: The response of tropical tropospheric ozone to ENSO, Geophysical Res. Lett., 38, L13706, doi:10.1029/2011GL047865, 2011.

Ndarana, T., and D.W. Waugh, PDF Document: A climatology of Rossby wave breaking in the Southern Hemisphere upper troposphere, J Atmos. Sci., 68, 798-811, 2011.

Polvani, L.M, D.W. Waugh, G.J.P. Correa and S.-W. Son: PDF Document: Stratospheric ozone depletion: the main driver of 20th Century atmospheric circulation changes in the Southern Hemisphere?, J. Clim., 24, 795-812. 2011.

Lang, C. and D.W. Waugh, PDF Document: Impact of climate change on the frequency of Northern Hemisphere summer cyclones, J Geophys. Res., 116, D04103, doi:10.1029/2010JD014300, 2011.

Butchart, N., et al. , PDF Document: Multi-model climatologies of the stratosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 116, D05102, doi:10.1029/2010JD014995, 2011.


Oman, L., D.W. Waugh, S.R. Kawa, R.S. Stolarski, A.R. Douglass, and P.A. Newman, PDF Document: Mechanisms and feedbacks causing changes in upper stratospheric ozone in the 21st century, J. Geophys. Res., 114, doi:10.1029/2009JD012397, 115, D05303, 2010.

Ndarana, T and D.W. Waugh, PDF Document: The link between cut-off lows and Rossby wave breaking in the Southern Hemisphere, Quart. J. Royal. Met. Soc., 136,869-885, 2010.

Waugh, D.W. and L.M. Polvani, PDF Document: Stratospheric Polar Vortices, in “The Stratosphere: Dynamics, Transport and Chemistry. A festschrift celebrating Alan Pumb’s 60th birthday”, L.M. Polvani, A.H. Sobel and D.W. Waugh, Eds., American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., 2010.

Li, F., Richard. S. Stolarski, S. Pawson, P. A. Newman, and D. Waugh (2010), Narrowing of the upwelling branch of the Brewer-Dobson circulation and Hadley cell in chemistry-climate model simulations of the 21st century, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L13702, doi:10.1029/2010GL043718.

Son, S.-W., E.P. Gerber, J. Perlwitz, L. M. Polvani, N. Gillett, K.-H. Seo and CCMVal Co-authors: The Impact of Stratospheric Ozone on the Southern Hemisphere Circulation Changes: A Multimodel Assessment, J. Geophys. Res., 115, D00M07, doi:10.1029/2010JD014271, 2010.

Eyring, VE, et al., Multi-model assessment of stratospheric ozone return dates and ozone recovery in CCMVal-2 models, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 9451–9472, doi:10.5194/acp-10-9451-2010, 2010.

Hegglin, M., et al.: Multi-Model Assessment of the Upper Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere: Extra-tropics, J. Geophys. Res., 115, D00M09, doi:10.1029/2010JD013884, 2010.

Morgenstern, O., et al.: Review of present-generation stratospheric chemistry-climate models and associated external forcings, J. Geophys. Res., 115, D00M02, doi:10.1029/2009JD013728, 2010.

Oman, L., et al.: PDF Document: Multi-model assessment of the factors driving stratospheric ozone evolution over the 21st century, J. Geophys. Res., 115, D24306, doi:10.1029/2010JD014362.

Austin, J., et al. The decline and recovery of total column ozone using a multi-model time series analysis, J. Geophys. Res., 115, D00M10, doi:10.1029/2010JD013857, 2010.

Butchart, N., et al. Chemistry-climate model simulations of 21st century stratospheric climate and circulation changes, J. Clim., 23, 5349–5374, doi: 10.1175/2010JCLI3404.1, 2010.

Charlton-Perez, A. J., et al. , Quantifying uncertainty in projections of stratospheric ozone over the 21st century, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 9473-9486, doi:10.5194/acp-10-9473-2010, 2010.


Waugh, D. W., L. Oman, P. A. Newman, R. S. Stolarski, S. Pawson, J. E. Nielsen, and J. Perlwitz (2009), PDF Document: Effect of zonal asymmetries in stratospheric ozone on simulated Southern Hemisphere climate trends , Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L18701, doi:10.1029/2009GL040419.

Son, S., N. F. Tandon, L. M. Polvani, and D. W. Waugh (2009), PDF Document: Ozone hole and Southern Hemisphere climate change , Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L15705, doi:10.1029/2009GL038671.

Son, S-W. L.M. Polvani, D.W. Waugh, et al., Future tropopause trends as simulated by stratospheric-resolving chemistry-climate models, J. Climate, 22, 429-445, 2009.

Ryoo, J.-M., T. Ugusa, and D.W. Waugh, D.W., PDF Document: PDFs of Tropospheric Humidity, J. Climate, 22, 3357-3373, 2009.

Oman, L. D.W. Waugh, S Pawson, R.S. Stolarski, and P.A. Newman, PDF Document: On the Influence of Anthropogenic Forcings on Changes in the Stratospheric Mean Age , J. Geophys. Res., 114, D03105,, 2009.

Vazquez-Rodríguez, M., F. Touratier, C. Lo Monaco, D.W. Waugh, et al., Anthropogenic carbon distributions in the Atlantic ocean: data-based estimates from the Arctic to the Antarctic , Biogeosciences, 6, 439-451, 2009.

Waugh, D.W. 2009, PDF Document: The age of stratospheric air, Nature Geosciences, 2, 14 – 16.

Waugh, D.W., et al., PDF Document: Impact of climate change on ozone recovery , Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L03805, doi:10.1029/2008GL036223, 2009.


Tanhua, T., D. W. Waugh, and D. W. R. Wallace, Use of SF6 to estimate anthropogenic carbon in the upper ocean., J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans, 113, C04037, 2008.

Funatsu, B.M., and D. W. Waugh PDF Document: Connections between Potential Vorticity Intrusions and Convection in the Eastern Tropical Pacific, J. Atmos. Sci., 65, 987-1002, 2008.

Haine, T.W.N. , H. Zhang, D.W. Waugh and M. Holzer, PDF Document: On transit-time distributions in unsteady circulation models, Ocean Modeling, 21, 35-45, 2008

Kvaleberg E., T.W.N. Haine., D.W. Waugh, PDF Document: Spreading of CFC-11 in the subpolar North Atlantic, J. Geophys. Res 113, C08019, doi:10.1029/2007JC004104., 2008.

Oman, L. D.W. Waugh, S Pawson, R.S. Stolarski, and J.E. Nielsen, PDF Document: Understanding the Changes of Stratospheric Water Vapor in Coupled Chemistry-Climate Model Simulations, J. Atmos. Sci, 65, 3278-3291, 2008.

Ryoo, J.M, D.W. Waugh, A. Gettelman, Variability of Subtropical Upper Tropospheric Humidity, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 2643-2655, 2008.

Scott, L. M. Polvani, and D. W. Waugh, PDF Document: Internal Variability of the Winter Stratosphere. Part II: Time-Dependent Forcing, J Atmos. Sci., 65, 2375–2388, 2008.

Son, S.-W., L. M. Polvani, D. W. Waugh, H. Akiyoshi, R. Garcia, D. Kinnison, S. Pawson, E. Rozanov, T. G. Shepherd, and K. Shibata, PDF Document: The Impact of Stratospheric Ozone Recovery on the Southern Hemisphere Westerly Jet, Science, 320, 1486-1489, 2008.

Tanhua T., D. W. Waugh, D. W. R. Wallace, PDF Document: Use of SF6 to estimate anthropogenic CO2 in the upper ocean, J. Geophys. Res., 113, C04037, doi:10.1029/2007JC004416, 2008.

Waugh, D.W., and E.R. Abraham, PDF Document: Stirring in the Global Surface Ocean , Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L20605, doi:10.1029/2008GL03552, 2008.

Waugh, D.W., and V. Eyring, Quantitative performance metrics for stratospheric-resolving chemistry-climate models, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 5699-5713, 2008


Waugh, D.W., S. E. Strahan, and P. A. Newman, Sensitivity of stratospheric inorganic chlorine to differences in transport, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 4935-4941, 2007

Lary D., D.W. Waugh, et al., PDF Document: Variations in Stratospheric Inorganic Chlorine between 1991 and 2006, Geosphys. Res. Lett., 34, L21811, doi:10.1029/2007GL030053, 2007.

Eyring, V., D.W. Waugh et al. PDF Document: Multi-model projections of stratospheric ozone in the 21st Century, J. Geophys. Res, D16303, doi:10.1029/2006JD008332, 2007.

Newman, P.A., J.S. Daniel, D.W. Waugh. E.R. Nash, A new formulation of equivalent effective stratospheric chlorine (EESC), Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 1-38, 2007.

Tanhua T., A. Kortzinger, K. Friis, D. W. Waugh, and D. W. R. Wallace PDF Document: An estimate of anthropogenic CO2 inventory from decadal changes in oceanic carbon content, PNAS 2007 104: 3017-3018

Bodeker, G.B and D.W. Waugh and co-authors, Chapter 6 of Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2006, Global Ozone Res. and Monit. Proj., Geneva, 2007.

Hall, T.M., T.W.N. Haine, M. Holzer, D.A. LeBel, F. Terenzi, and D.W. Waugh PDF Document: Ventilation rates estimated from tracers in the presence of mixing. J. Phys. Oceanog., 37, 2599-2611, 2007.


Froidevaux, L. et al., PDF Document: Temporal decrease in upper atmospheric chlorine, Geophysical Res. Lett., 33, L23812, 2006.

Waugh, D.W., Hall, T. M., B. McNeil, and R. Key, PDF Document: Anthropogenic CO2 in the oceans estimated using transit-time distributions, Tellus, 2006.

Eyring V., et al., PDF Document: Assessment of coupled chemistry-climate models: Evaluation of dynamics, transport and ozone. J. Geophys. Res., 111, D22308, 2006.

Waugh, D.W., E. R. Abraham, M. M. Bowen PDF Document: , Spatial variations of stirring in the surface ocean: A case study of the Tasman Sea, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 36, 526-542, 2006.


Eyring V., et al. A strategy for process-oriented validation of coupled chemistry-climate models. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 86, 1117-1133, 2005.

Waugh, D.W., PDF Document: Impact of Potential Vorticity Intrusions on Subtropical Upper Tropospheric Humidity, J. Geophys. Res., 110, D11305, 2005.

Waugh, D.W., and T.H. Hall, PDF Document: Propagation of tracer signals in boundary currents, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 35, 1538-1552, 2005.

Zhang, H., Haine, T.W., and Waugh, D.W., PDF Document: Transport timescales in a double gyre circulation J. Phys. Oceanogr., 35, 2250-2267, 2005.


Molod, A., Salmun, H., Waugh D.W., The Impact on a GCM Climate of an Extended Mosaic Technique for the Land – Atmosphere Coupling, J. Climate, 17, 3877-3891, 2004.

Ma J., D.W. Waugh, A.R. Douglass, S.R. Kawa, P. A. Newman, S. Pawson, R. Stolarski, S. J. Lin PDF Document: Interannual variability of stratospheric trace gases: Role of extratropical wave driving Quart. J. Roy. Met. Soc., 130, 2459-2474, 2004.

Polvani L.M., and D. W. Waugh, PDF Document: Upward Wave Activity Flux as Precursor to Extreme Stratospheric Events and Subsequent Anomalous Surface Weather Regimes , J. Clim., 17, 3548-3554, 2004.

Rong, P.P., and D. W. Waugh, PDF Document: Vacillations in a Shallow Water Model of the Stratosphere J. Atmos. Sci., 61, 1174-1185, 2004.

Waugh, D.W., T. W. N. Haine, and Hall, T. M., PDF Document: Transport Times and Anthropogenic Carbon in the Subpolar North Atlantic Ocean. Deep-Sea Res., 51, 1475-1491, 2004.

Hall, T. M., D. W. Waugh, T. W. N. Haine, P. E. Robbins, and S. Khatiwala, PDF Document: Reduced estimates of anthropogenic carbon in the Indian Ocean due to mixing and time-varying air-sea CO2 disequilibrium, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 18, 10.1029/2003GB002120, 2004.

Scott, R.K., D. G. Dritschel, L. M. Polvani, and D. W. Waugh, PDF Document: Enhancement of Rossby wave breaking by steep potential vorticity gradients in the winter stratosphere, J. Atmos. Sci., 61, 904, 2004.


Peters, D., and Waugh D.W., PDF Document: Rossby Wave Breaking in the Southern Hemisphere Wintertime Upper Troposphere, Mon. Wea. Rev. , 131, 2623-2634, 2003.

Molod, A., Salmun, H., and Waugh D.W., A new look at modeling surface heterogenity: Extending its influence in the vertical. J. Hydrometeorology, 4, 810-825, 2003.

Waugh, D.W., and Funastu, B.M., PDF Document: Intrusions into Tropical Upper Troposphere: Three Dimensional Structure and accompanying Ozone and OLR distributions. J. Atmos. Sci., 60, 637-653, 2003.

Waugh, D.W., T.M. Hall, and T.W.N. Haine Relationship among tracer ages, J. Geophys. Res. – Oceans , 108, 5, 10.1029/2002JC001325, 2003.

Ma, J., Waugh,D.W., Douglass, A.R., & Kawa S.R., PDF Document: Evaluation of the transport in the GSFC 3D chemical transport model using the “Equivalent Length” diagnostic J. Geophys. Res. , 108, 6, 10.1029/2002JD002268, 2003


Waugh, D.W., &Hall, T.M., PDF Document: Age of stratospheric air: Theory, observations, and models Rev. Geophys., 40 (4), 10.1029/2000RG000101, 2002

Waugh, D.W., M.K. Vollmer, R.F. Weiss, T.W.N. Haine and T.M. Hall PDF Document: Transit Time Distributions in Lake Issyk-Kul Geophys. Res. Lett. , 29 (24), 10.1029/2002GL016201, 2002

Hall, T. M., T. W. N. Haine, and D. W. Waugh, PDF Document: Inferring the concentration of anthropogenic carbon in the ocean from tracers, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 16, 10.1029/2001GB001835, 2002

Esler, J.G. & Waugh, D.W., PDF Document: A method for estimating the extent of denitrification of Arctic polar vortex air from tracer-tracer scatterplots J. Geophys. Res. , 107, 10.1029/2001JD001071 2002.

Waugh, D.W., & Rong, P.P, PDF Document: Interannual Variability in the Decay of Lower Stratospheric Arctic Vortices J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 80, 997-1012, 2002.


Waugh, D.W., Considine, D.B., & Fleming, E.L., Is Upper Stratospheric Chlorine Decreasing as Expected? Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 1187-1190, 2001.

Kinnison, D.E., et al., The Global Modeling Initiative Assessment Model: Application to High-Speed Civil Transport Perturbation, J. Geophys. Res., 106, 1693-1711, 2001.


James, P.M, Peters, D., & D.W Waugh, Very low ozone episodes due to polar vortex displacement. Tellus , 52, 1123-1137, 2000.

Waugh, D.W., and Polvani, L.M., Intrusions into the tropical upper troposphere. Geophys. Res. Lett., 27, 3857-3860, 2000.

Hall, T.M. and D.W. Waugh, Stratospheric residence time and its relationship to mean age, J. Geophys. Res. , 105, 6773-6782, 2000.

Plumb, R.A., Waugh D.W., and Chipperfield, M, The effects of mixing on tracer relationships in the polar vortices, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 10047-10062, 2000.

Before <2000

Li, S., and Waugh D.W., Sensitivity of mean age and long-lived tracers to transport coefficients in two-dimensional models. J. Geophys. Res. , 104, 30559-30569, 1999.

Waugh, D.W., Randel, W.J., Pawson, S., Newman, P.A., and Nash, E.R., PDF Document: Persistence of the Lower Stratospheric Polar Vortices. J. Geophys. Res , 104, 27191-27201, 1999.

Hall, T.M., Waugh, D.W., Boering, K.A., and Plumb, R.A, PDF Document: Evaluation of transport in stratospheric models, J. Geophys. Res. , 104, 18815-18839, 1999.

Waugh, D.W. & Randel, W.J., PDF Document: Climatology of Arctic and Antarctic polar vortices using elliptical diagnostics Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 56 , 1594-1613, 1999.

Waugh, D.W. & Dritschel, D.G., PDF Document: The dependence of Rossby wave breaking on the vertical structure of the polar vortex Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 56 , 2359-2375, 1999.

Kawa, S.R., J. Anderson, C. Brock, R. Cohen, D. Kinnison, P.A. Newman, J. Rodriguez, R. Stolarksi, D.W. Waugh, \& S. Wofsy, Assessment of the Effects of High-Speed Aircraft in the Stratosphere: 1998, NASA Tech. Pub. 1999-209236, 1999.

Ravishnkara, T.G. Shepherd, P.H. Haynes, S.R. Kawa, R.A. Plumb, R. Portman, W.J. Randel, \& D.W. Waugh, Chapter 7 of Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 1998, Global Ozone Res. and Monit. Proj., Geneva, 1999.

Hall, M. & Waugh, D.W. The influence of nonlocal chemistry on tracer distributions: Inferring the mean age of air from SF6. J. Geophys. Res. 103 ,13327-13336, 1998.

Waugh, D.W., Sisson, J.M., and Karoly, D.J.Predictive Skill of a NWP model in the Southern Lower Stratosphere, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 125, 2181-2200, 1998.

Hall, M. & Waugh, D.W. PDF Document: Tracer transport in the tropical stratosphere due to vertical diffusion and horizontal mixing Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 1383-1386, 1997.

Waugh, D.W. et al. Three-dimensional simulations of long-lived tracers using winds from MACCM2 J. Geophys. Res. 102, 21493-21513,1997.

Waugh, D.W., PDF Document: Elliptical diagnostics of stratospheric polar vortices, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 123, 1725-1748, 1997.

Hall, M. & Waugh, D.W. PDF Document: Timescales for the Stratospheric Circulation Derived from Tracers J. Geophys. Res. 102, 8991-9001 1997.

Waugh, D.W., Plumb, R.A., et al., PDF Document: Mixing of polar vortex air into middle latitudes as revealed by tracer-tracer scatter plots. J. Geophys. Res. 102, 13119-13134, 1997.

Sobel, A. , Plumb, R.A. & Waugh, D.W., On Methods of Calculating Transport Across the Polar Vortex Edge. Atmos. Sci., 54, 1997.

Peters, D., & Waugh D.W., Influence of barotropic shear on the poleward advection of upper tropospheric air. Atmos. Sci., 53, 3013-3031, 1996.

Polvani, L.M., Waugh, D.W., & Plumb, R.A., Reply Atmos. Sci., 53, 15 December, 1996.

Waugh, D.W., Seasonal variation of transport out of the tropical stratosphere. J. Geophys. Res., 101, 4007-4023, 1996.

Polvani, L.M., Waugh, D.W., & Plumb, R.A., PDF Document: On the subtropical edge of the stratospheric surf zone. Atmos. Sci., 52, 1288-1309, 1995.

Waugh, D.W. & Plumb, R.A., Contour Advection with Surgery: A technique for investigating fine scale structure in tracer transport. J. Atmos. Sci., 51, 530-540, 1994.

Waugh, D.W., Plumb, R.A., et al., PDF Document: Transport of material out of the stratospheric Arctic vortex by rossby wave breaking. J. Geophys. Res., 99, 1071-1088, 1994.

Plumb, R.A., Waugh, D.W., et al., PDF Document: Intrusions into the lower stratospheric arctic vortex during the winter of 1991/92. J. Geophys. Res., 99, 1089-1106, 1994.

Waugh, D.W., Polvani, L.M., & Plumb, R.A., Nonlinear, barotropic response to a localized topographic forcing: formation of a `tropical surf zone’ and its effect on interhemispheric propagation. J. Atmos. Sci. 51, 1401-1416, 1994.

Waugh, D.W., Plumb, R.A., et al., Fine-scale, poleward transport of tropical air during AASE 2. Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 2603-2606, 1994.

Plumb, R.A. and D.W. Waugh, High-resolution contour advection using NWP products. In ECMWF workshop on the Stratosphere and NWP, 1993.

Waugh, D.W., Contour Surgery simulations of a forced polar vortex. J. Atmos. Sci., 50, 714-730, 1993.

Waugh, D.W., PDF Document: Subtropical stratospheric mixing linked to disturbances on the polar vortices. Nature, 365, 535-537, 1993.

Dritschel D.G. & Waugh D.W., Quantification of inelastic interactions of vortices in two-dimensional vortex dynamics. Phys. Fluids A., 4, 1737-1744, 1992.

Waugh, D.W., The efficiency of symmetric vortex merger. Phys. Fluid A., 4, 1745-1758, 1992.

Waugh, D.W. & Dritschel, D.G., The stability of filamentary vorticity in two-dimensional geophysical vortex-dynamics models. J. Fluid Mech., 231, 575-598, 1991.

Waugh, D.W., Forced vortex merger. In 1991 Summer Study in Geophysical Fluid Dynamics. Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Technical Report, 1991.

Hosking R.J., Sneyd A.D., & Waugh, D.W. Viscoelastic response of a floating ice plate to a steadily moving load. J. Fluid Mech., 196, 409-430, 1988.