Papers by Theme

The papers below are sorted into the following themes. This is some what arbitrary and is not complete. Complete list in chronological order is here.

Polar Vortices
Stratospheric Ozone and Impacts
Tropical Expansion and Jet Trends
Ocean Ventilation
Tropospheric Transport
Transit Times
Air Quality
Urban Heat

Polar Vortices


Waugh, DW, Fluid Dynamics of Polar Vortices on Earth, Mars, and Titan, Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics 55, 2023.

Mitchell, D.M. RK Scott, WJM Seviour, S Thompson, DW Waugh, N Teanby, ER Ball, Polar vortices in planetary atmospheres. Rev. Geophysics, 2021

Waugh, D.W, A Sobel, L.M. Polvani, 2016: What is the Polar Vortex and how does it influence weather? Bulletin American Meteorological Society, 98, 37-44.

Waugh, D.W. and L.M. Polvani, Stratospheric Polar Vortices, in “The Stratosphere: Dynamics, Transport and Chemistry. A festschrift celebrating Alan Pumb’s 60th birthday”, L.M. Polvani, A.H. Sobel and D.W. Waugh, Eds., American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., 2010.

The Polar Vortex: Meshing and Stripping the Gears of the Atmosphere


Toigo AD, DW Waugh, Connections between the Transient Polar Warming and Solstitial Pause on Mars, The Planetary Science Journal 3 (9), 208, 2022 DOI 10.3847/PSJ/ac8550

Toigo, A., D.W. Waugh, S. Guzewich, Atmospheric Transport into Polar Regions on Mars in Different Orbital Epochs, Icarus, 347, 113816, 2020

Scott, R., W. Seviour, D.W. Waugh, Forcing of the Martian polar annulus by Hadley cell transport and latent heating, QJRMS, May, 2020.

Waugh D. W., A.D. Toigo, S.D. Guzewich, 2019, Age of martian air: Time scales for martian atmospheric transport Icarus, 317, 148-157.

Toigo, A.D, D. W. Waugh, and S. D. Guzewich, 2017, What Causes Mars’ Annular Polar Vortices? Geophys. Res. Lett. 44, 71-78.

Seviour, W.J.M, D.W. Waugh, R.K. Scott 2017, The Stability of Mars’ Annular Polar Vortex, J. Atmos Sci., 74, 1533-1547.

Waugh D. W., A.D. Toigo, S.D. Guzewich, S.J. Greybush, R.J. Wilson , L. Montabone, 2016: Martian Polar Vortices: Comparison of Reanalyses, J. Geophysical Res. -Planets, 121.


Shultis, J, DW Waugh, AD Toigo, CE Newman, NA Teanby, J Sharkey, Winter Weakening of Titan’s Stratospheric Polar Vortices, The Planetary Science Journal 3 (4), 73, 2022


Guendelman, I., Waugh, D.W. and Kaspi, Y., 2022. Dynamical regimes of polar vortices on terrestrial planets with a seasonal cycle. The planetary science journal, 3(4), p.94.

Guendelman, I., Waugh, D.W. and Kaspi, Y., 2021. The emergence of a summer hemisphere jet in planetary atmospheres. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 78(10), pp.3337-3348.

Tropical Expansion and Jet Trends

Waugh D.W, A. Banerjee, J Fyfe, and L.M. Polvani,  Contrasting recent trends in Southern Hemisphere Westerlies across different ocean basins, Geophysical Res. Lett., 47, e2020GL088890, 2020.

A. Banerjee, J.C. Fyfe, L.M. Polvani, D.W Waugh and K.-L. Chang: A pause in Southern Hemisphere circulation trends due to the Montreal Protocol, Nature, 579, 544–548 (2020)

Staten P.W., K.M. Grise, S.M. Davis, K.B. Karnauskas, D.W. Waugh, A. Maycock, Q. Fu, K. Cook, O. Adam, I.R. Simpson, R.J. Allen, K. Rosenlof, G. Chen, C.C. Ummenhofer, X-W Quan, J.P. Kossin, N. A. Davis, S-W Son, Tropical widening: from global variations to regional impacts, Bulletin of the Amer. Meteorolog. Soc., to appear, 2020.

Menzel, M.E., D. W. Waugh, K. Grise, 2019, Relationships between the Hadley Cell and Subtropical Jet, Geophys. Res. Lett., 46, 7045-7053.

Grise, K., S.M. Davis, I. R. Simpson, D. W. Waugh, Q. Fu, R.J. Allen, K.H. Rosenlof, C.C. Ummenhofer, K.B. Karnuaskas, A.C. Maycock, X. Quan, T. Birner,and P.W. Staten, 2019 Recent Tropical Expansion: Natural Variability or Forced Response? J Climate,

Adam, O., Grise, K. M., Staten, P., Simpson, I. R., Davis, S. M., Davis, N. A., Waugh, D. W., and Birner, T., 2018, The TropD software package: Standardized methods for calculating Tropical Width Diagnostics,  Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 4339-4357.

Waugh, D.W. M. Grise, W. J. M. Seviour, S.M. Davis, N. Davis, O. Adam, S.-W. Son, I R Simpson, P. W. Staten, A. C. Maycock, C.C. Ummenhofer, T. Birner , and A. Ming, 2018, Revisiting the Relationship among Metrics of Tropical Expansion, J Climate, 18, 7565–7581.

Seviour, W. J. M., Davis, S. M.,Grise, K. M., & Waugh, D. W , 2018. Large uncertainty in the relative rates of dynamical and hydrological tropical expansion. Geophysical Research Letters, 45,

Garfinkel CI, D.W. Waugh, L. M. Polvani, 2015: Recent Hadley cell expansion: the role of internal atmospheric variability, Geophy. Res. Lett., 42 doi:10.1002/2015GL066942.

Waugh, D.W, C.I. Garfinkel, L.M. Polvani, 2015 Drivers of the recent tropical expansion in the Southern Hemisphere: Changing SSTs or ozone depletion? J Climate, 28, 6581-6588.

Thomas J.L., D. W. Waugh, A Gnanadesikan, 2015 Southern Hemisphere extratropical circulation: Recent trends and natural variability . Geophys. Res. Lett., 42, doi:10.1002/2015GL064521.

Ocean Ventilation

Morrison, A.K., Waugh, D.W., Hogg, A.M., Jones, D.C. and Abernathey, R.P., 2022. Ventilation of the Southern Ocean Pycnocline. Annual Review of Marine Science, 14.

Waugh, D.W, K.D. Stewart, A. McC Hogg, M H England, Interbasin differences in ocean ventilation in response to variations in the Southern Annular Mode, JGR Oceans, 126, e2020JC016540, 2021

Waugh DW and TWH Haine, How rapidly do the southern subtropical oceans respond to wind stress changes? JGR Oceans, June, 2020

Thomas, J., W. Waugh; A. Gnanadesikan,  Relationship between age and oxygen along Line W in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean, Ocean Sciences Journal, July, 2020.

Waugh, D.W., A. McC. Hogg, P Spence, M. H. England, T. W.N. Haine, 2019, Response of Southern Ocean ventilation to changes in mid-latitude westerly winds,  J Climate, 32, 5345-5361.

Waugh DW. 2014 Changes in the ventilation of the southern oceans . Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 372: 20130269.

Tanhua. T., D.W. Waugh, J., Bullister, Estimating changes in ocean ventilation from early 1990s CFC- 12 and late 2000s SF6 measurements , Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, 927-932, 2013.

Waugh, D.W., F. Primeau, T. Devries, and M. Holzer, Recent changes in the ventilation of the southern oceans , Science, 339, 568, doi:10.1126/science.1225411, 2013

Tropospheric Transport

Yang, H., Waugh, D.W., Orbe, C., Patra, P.K., Jöckel, P., Lamarque, J.-F., et al., 2019. Evaluating simulations of interhemispheric transport: Interhemispheric exchangetime versus SF6 Geophysical ResearchLetters, 46, 1113–1120.

Orbe C. et al., 2020, Description and Evaluation of the Specified-Dynamics Experiment in the Chemistry-Climate Model Initiative (CCMI), Atmos. Chem. & Physics,

Yang H., D.W. Waugh, C Orbe, G. Zeng, O. Morgenstern, D.E. Kinnison, J-F Lamarque, S Tilmes, D.A. Plummer, P. Jöckel, S.E. Strahan, K.A. Stone, and R. Schofield, 2018, Large-scale transport into the Arctic: the roles of the midlatitude jet and the Hadley Cell, Atmos. Chem. Phys.

Orbe, C., Yang, H., Waugh, D. W., et al., 2018,  Large-Scale Tropospheric Transport in the Chemistry Climate Model Initiative (CCMI) Simulations, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 2018,

Wu, X., Yang, H., Waugh, D. W., Orbe, C., Tilmes, S., and Lamarque,J.-F., 2018. Spatial and Temporal Variability of Interhemispheric Transport Times, Atmos. Chem. Phys.,

Yang, H,Waugh,D.W.,&Holzer, M. 2018. Decoupling the effects of transport and chemical loss on tropospheric composition: A model study of path-dependent life-times. Journal of Geophysical Research:Atmospheres, 123, 2320–2335.

Orbe, C., Oman, L.D., Strahan, S.E., Waugh, D.W., Pawson, S., Takacs, L.L. and Molod, A.M., 2017. Large‐Scale Atmospheric Transport in GEOS Replay Simulations . Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems. 9, 2545–2560.

Chen G., C. Orbe, and D.W. Waugh 2017, The Role of Monsoon-like Zonally Asymmetric Heating in Interhemispheric Transport, Journal of Geophysical Research – Atmospheres , 122, 3282–3298.

Orbe, C., D. W. Waugh, H. Yang, J-F Lamarque, S. Tilmes, D.E. Kinnison, 2017, Tropospheric Transport Differences Between Models Using the Same Large-Scale Meteorological Fields, Geophys. Res. Lett.,

Holzer, M., and D. W. Waugh (2015), Interhemispheric transit-time distributions and path-dependent lifetimes constrained by measurements of SF6, CFCs, and CFC replacements , Geophys. Res. Lett., 42, doi:10.1002/2015GL064172.

Waugh, D.W., et al. Tropospheric SF6: Age of Air from the Northern Hemisphere Mid-latitude Surface , JGR, 118, 11429-11441, 2013

Stratospheric Ozone


Seviour WJM, F Codron, EW Doddridge, David Ferreira, A Gnanadesikan, M Kelley, Y Kostov, J Marshall, LM Polvani, JL Thomas, DW Waugh, 2019, The Southern Ocean sea surface temperature response to ozone depletion: A multi-model comparison, Journal of Climate, 32, 5107-5121.

Polvani, LM., L. Wang, V Aquila, DW Waugh, 2017: The impact of ozone depleting substances on tropical upwelling, as revealed by the absence of lower stratospheric cooling since the late 1990s, J Climate, 30, 2523-2534,

Seviour, W.J.M, D. W. Waugh, L. M. Polvani, G.J. P. Correa, C.I. Garfinkel, 2017: Robustness of the simulated tropospheric response to ozone depletion, J Climate, , 30, 2577-2585.

Seviour, W.J.M, A. Gnanadesikan, M.-A. Pradal, D.W. Waugh, 2017: Transient response of the Southern Ocean to changing ozone: Regional responses and physical mechanisms , J Climate, , 30, 2577-2585.

Waugh, D.W, C.I. Garfinkel, L.M. Polvani, 2015 Drivers of the recent tropical expansion in the Southern Hemisphere: Changing SSTs or ozone depletion? J Climate, 28, 6581-6588.

Waugh, D.W., V. Eyring and D.E. Kinnison, Stratospheric Ozone in the 21st Century, in “Stratospheric Ozone Depletion and Climate Change”, R. Muller, Ed., Royal Society of Chemistry, 2011.


Tweedy, O., L. Oman, and D.W. Waugh, Seasonality of the MJO impact on upper troposphere/lower stratosphere temperature, circulation and composition, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 77,4, 2020.

Tweedy O.V., D.W Waugh, W Randel, M Abalos, L Oman, D Kinnison, 2018, The impact of boreal summer ENSO events on tropical lower stratospheric ozone, J Geophys. Res., 123(17).

Conway, J, G.E. Bodeker, D.W. Waugh, D.J. Murphy, C. Cameron, J. Lewis et al., 2019, Using Project Loon super-pressure balloon observations to investigate the inertial peak in the intrinsic wind spectrum in the mid-latitude stratosphere, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres.

Garfinkel C.,V Aquila, DW Waugh, and LD Oman, 2017: Time varying changes in the simulated structure of the Brewer Dobson Circulation, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 17, 1313–1327,

Tweedy, O.V., D.W. Waugh, R.S. Stolarski, L.D. Oman, W.J Randel, M.Abalos, 2017, Hemispheric differences in the annual cycle of tropical lower stratosphere transport and tracers, J. Geophys. Res. ,

Tweedy, O.V, N.A Kramarova, S.E. Strahan, P.A. Newman, L. Coy, W.J Randel, M. Park, D.W. Waugh, and S. Frith, 2017, Response of Trace Gases to the Disrupted 2015-2016 Quasi-Biennial Oscillation, Atmos. Chem. Physics , 7, 6813-6823.

Air Quality

Zhang, X, DW Waugh, GH Kerr, SM Miller, Surface Ozone‐Temperature Relationship: The Meridional Gradient Ratio Approximation, Geophysical Research Letters 49 (13), e2022GL098680, 2022

Kerr GH, DW Waugh, S Miller, Jet Stream-surface tracer relationships: Mechanism and sensitivity to source region, Geophys. Res. Lett., January, 2021

Kerr GH, DW Waugh, SA Strode, SD Steenrod, and SE Strahan, Surface ozone-meteorology relationships: Spatial variations and the role of the jet stream, JGR Atmosphere, October 2020

Kerr GH, DW Waugh, SA Strode, SD Steenrod, and SE Strahan, Surface ozone-meteorology relationships: Spatial variations and the role of the jet stream, JGR Atmosphere, submitted, 2020

Kerr GH, DW Waugh, SA Strode, SD Steenrod, LD Oman, and SE Strahan, 2019, Disentangling the Drivers of the Ozone-Temperature Relationship over the United States, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres.

Gaige, K, and D.W. Waugh, 2018, Connections between Summer Air Pollution and Stagnation, Environ. Res. Lett., 13 (8), 084001.

Saunders, R.O, and D. W. Waugh, 2015, Variability of summer PM2.5 in the Northeastern United States and tracing of potential sources using MERRAero reanalysis , Atmos. Env., 117, 259-270.

Urban Heat

Waugh,D.W, He, B. Zaitchik, R. D. Peng, G.B. Diette, N.N. Hansel, E.C. Matsui, P.N. Breysse, D.H. Breysse, K. Koehler, D. Williams, M.C. McCormack Indoor heat exposure in Baltimore: Does outdoor temperature matter?  International Journal of Biometeorology, 65, 479–488 (2021).

Scott, AA, DW Waugh, BF Zaitchik, 2018, Reduced Urban Heat Island intensity under warmer conditions, Environmental Research Letters 13 (6).

Scott, A. A., Zaitchik, B., Waugh, D., & O’Meara, K. (2017). Intra-urban temperature variability in Baltimore. Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 56, 159-171.

Scott, A.A., Misiani, H., Okoth, J., Jordan, A., Gohlke, J., Ouma, G., Arrighi, J., Zaitchik, B.F., Jjemba, E., Verjee, S. and Waugh, D.W., 2017. Temperature and heat in informal settlements in Nairobi. PloS one, 12(11),

Zaitchik BF, K O’Meara, K Baja, MC McCormack, AA Scott and DW Waugh (2016) B’more Cool: Monitoring the Urban Heat Island at High Density for Health and Urban Design. Earthzine.

Transit Times

Waugh, D.W., and Hall, T.M., Age of stratospheric air: Theory, observations, and models Rev. Geophys., 40 (4), 10.1029/2000RG000101, 2002

Waugh, D.W., et al. Tropospheric SF6: Age of Air from the Northern Hemisphere Mid-latitude Surface , JGR, 118, 11429-11441, 2013 2013

Waugh, D.W. 2009, The age of stratospheric air, Nature Geosciences, 2, 14 – 16.

Waugh, D.W., T. W. N. Haine, and Hall, T. M., Transport Times and Anthropogenic Carbon in the Subpolar North Atlantic Ocean. Deep-Sea Res., 51, 1475-1491, 2004.

Waugh, D.W., T.M. Hall, and T.W.N. Haine Relationship among tracer ages, J. Geophys. Res. – Oceans , 108, 5, 10.1029/2002JC001325, 2003.

Waugh, D.W., M.K. Vollmer, R.F. Weiss, T.W.N. Haine and T.M. Hall Transit Time Distributions in Lake Issyk-Kul Geophys. Res. Lett. , 29 (24), 10.1029/2002GL016201, 2002