Transport Timescales

Quantifying the timescales for transport into and through the stratosphere, oceans, lakes and groundwater is important for understanding/modeling the flow, biochemical cycling, and distribution of constituents. Research in this area uses theory, models and observations to determine transit time distributions (TTDs) and the infiltration of tracers (e.g. ozone-depleting substances into the stratosphere, and carbon into the oceans).


Waugh, D.W., &Hall, T.M., Age of stratospheric air: Theory, observations, and models Rev. Geophys., 40 (4), 10.1029/2000RG000101, 2002

Waugh, D.W. 2009, PDF Document: The age of stratospheric air, Nature Geosciences, 2, 14 – 16.


Holzer, M., and D. W. Waugh (2015), PDF Document: Interhemispheric transit-time distributions and path-dependent lifetimes constrained by measurements of SF6, CFCs, and CFC replacements , Geophys. Res. Lett., 42, doi:10.1002/2015GL064172.

Waugh, D.W., et al. PDF Document: Tropospheric SF6: Age of Air from the Northern Hemisphere Mid-latitude Surface , JGR, 118, 11429-11441, 2013


Waugh DW. 2014 PDF Document: Changes in the ventilation of the southern oceans . Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 372: 20130269.

Waugh, D.W., F. Primeau, T. Devries, and M. Holzer, PDF Document: Recent changes in the ventilation of the southern oceans , Science, 339, 568, doi:10.1126/science.1225411, 2013.

Waugh, D.W., T. W. N. Haine, and Hall, T. M., Transport Times and Anthropogenic Carbon in the Subpolar North Atlantic Ocean. Deep-Sea Res., 51, 1475-1491, 2004.