122. Wu, M.; Stoermer, D.; Tullius, T. D.; Townsend, C. A. “Calicheamicin-Homeodomain Conjugate as an Efficient, Sequence-Specific DNA Cleavage and Mapping Tool,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2000122, 12884-12885.

121. Li, R.; Stapon, A.; Blanchfield, J. T.; Townsend, C. A. “Three Unusual Reactions Mediate Carbapenem and Carbapenam Biosynthesis,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2000122, 9296-9297.

120. Jones, P. B.; Parrish, N. M.; Houston, T. A.; Stapon, A. S.; Bansal, N. P.; Dick, J. D.; Townsend, C. A. “A New Class of Anti-Tuberculosis Agents,” J. Med. Chem. 200043, 3304-3314.

119. Bachmann, B. O.; Townsend, C. A. “Kinetic Mechanism of the β-Lactam Synthetase of Streptomyces clavuligerus,” Biochemistry 200039, 11187-11193.

118. Loftus, T. M.; Jaworsky D. E.; Frehywot, G. L.; Townsend, C. A.; Ronnett, G. V.; Lane, M. D.; Kuhajda, F. P. “Reduced Food Intake and Body Weight in Mice Treated with Fatty Acid Synthase Inhibitors,” Science 2000288, 2379-2381.

117. Khaleeli, N.; Busby, R. W.; Townsend, C. A. “Site-Directed Mutagenesis and Biochemical Analysis of the Endogenous Ligands in the Ferrous Active Site of Clavaminate Synthase. The His-3 Variant of the 2-His-1-Carboxylate Model,” Biochemistry 200039, 8666-8673.

116. Kuhajda, F. P.; Pizer, E. S.; Li J. N.; Mani, N. S.; Frehywot, G. L.; Townsend, C. A. “Synthesis and Antitumor Activity of an Inhibitor of Fatty Acid Synthase,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 200097, 3450-3454.

115. Li, R.; Khaleeli, N.; Townsend, C. A. “Expansion of the Clavulanic Acid Gene Cluster: Identification and In Vivo Functional Analysis of Three New Genes Required for the Biosynthesis of Clavulanic Acid by Streptomyces clavuligerus,” J. Bacteriol. 2000182, 4087-4095.

114. Pizer, E. S.; Thupari, J.; Han, W. F.; Pinn, M. L.; Chrest, F. J.; Frehywot, G. L.; Townsend, C. A.; Kuhajda, F. P. “Malonyl-Coenzyme-A Is a Potential Mediator of Cytotoxicity Induced by Fatty-Acid Synthase Inhibition in Human Breast Cancer Cells and Xenografts,” Cancer Res.200060, 213-218.

113. Challis, G. L.; Ravel, J.; Townsend, C. A. “Predictive, Structure-Based Model of Amino Acid Recognition by Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetase Adenylation Domains,” Chemistry & Biology 20007, 211-224.

112. Keller, N. P.; Watanabe, C. M. H.; Kelkar, H. S.; Adams, T. H.; Townsend, C. A. “Requirement of Monooxygenase-Mediated Steps for Sterigmatocystin Biosynthesis by Aspergillus nidulans,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 200066, 359-362.

111. Khaleeli, N.; Li, R.; Townsend, C. A. “Origin of the β-Lactam Carbons in Clavulanic Acid from an Unusual Thiamine Pyrophosphate-Mediated Reaction,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1999121, 9223-9224. [See also: Cane, D. E. “Perspectives: Biosynthetic Pathways: Biosynthesis Meets Bioinformatics,” Science 2000287, 818-819.]

110. Iwata-Reuyl, D.; Basak, A.; Townsend, C. A. “β-Secondary Kinetic Isotope Effects in the Clavaminate Synthase-Catalyzed Oxidative Cyclization of Proclavaminic Acid and in Related Azetidinone Model Reactions,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1999121, 11356-11368.

109. Graybill, T. L.; Casillas, E. G.; Pal, K.; Townsend, C. A. “Silyl Triflate-Mediated Ring-Closure and Rearrangement in the Synthesis of Potential Bisfuran-Containing Intermediates of Aflatoxin Biosynthesis,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1999121, 7729-7746.

108. Casillas, L. K.; Townsend, C. A. “Total Synthesis of O-Methylsterigmatocystin Using N-Alkylnitrilium Salts and Carbonyl-Alkene Interconversion in a New Xanthone Synthesis,” J. Org. Chem. 199964, 4050-4059.

107. Zhou, J.; Gunsior, M.; Bachmann, B. O.; Townsend, C. A.; Solomon, E. I. “Substrate Binding to the α-Ketoglutarate-Dependent Non-Heme Iron Enzyme Clavaminate Synthase 2: Coupling Mechanism of Oxidative Decarboxylation and Hydroxylation,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1998120, 13539-13540.

106. Reeve, A. M.; Townsend, C. A. “Inhibitors of an AdoMet-Dependent 3-Amino-3-Carboxypropyl Transferase and Their Use as Ligands for Protein Affinity Chromatography,” Tetrahedron 199854, 15959-15974.

105. Bachmann, B. O.; Li, R.; Townsend, C. A. “β-Lactam Synthetase: A New Biosynthetic Enzyme,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 199895, 9082-9086.

104. Reeve, A. M.; Breazeale, S. D.; Townsend, C. A. “Purification, Characterization, and Cloning of an S-Adenosylmethionine-Dependent 3-Amino-3-Carboxypropyltransferase in Nocardicin Biosynthesis,” J. Biol. Chem. 1998273, 30695-30703.

103. Watanabe, C. M. H.; Townsend, C. A. “The in Vitro Conversion of Norsolorinic Acid to Aflatoxin B1. An Improved Method of Cell-Free Enzyme Preparation and Stabilization,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1998120, 6231-6239.

102. Pavel, E. G.; Zhou, J.; Busby, R. W.; Gunsior, M.; Townsend, C. A.; Solomon, E. I. “Circular Dichroism and Magnetic Circular Dichroism Spectroscopic Studies of the Non-Heme Ferrous Active Site in Clavaminate Synthase and Its Interaction with α-Ketoglutarate Cosubstrate,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1998120, 743-753.

101. Pitlik, J.; Townsend, C. A. “Solution-Phase Synthesis of a Combinatorial Monocyclic β-Lactam Library: Potential Protease Inhibitors,” Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 19977, 3129-3134.

100. Townsend, C. A. “Structural Studies of Natural Product Biosynthetic Proteins,” Chem. & Biol. 19974, 721-730.

99. Pitlik, J.; Townsend, C. A. “Efficient Syntheses of Multiply 2H- and 13C-Labeled Acrylic Acid, Glyceric Acid, Glycidic Acid and Glycerol,” J. Labelled Compd. Radiopharm. 199739, 999-1009.

98. Minto, R. E.; Townsend, C. A. “Enzymology and Molecular Biology of Aflatoxin Biosynthesis,” Chem. Rev. 199797, 2537-2555.

97. Townsend, C. A.; Minto, R. E. “Biosynthesis of Aflatoxins,” in Comprehensive Natural Products Chemistry, Barton, D. H. R., Nakanishi, K., Eds.; Vol. 1, Sankawa, U., Ed.; Elsevier Science Ltd.: Oxford; 1999, pp. 443-471.

96. Miller, A. -F.; Egan, L. A.; Townsend, C. A. “Measurement of the Degree of Coupled Isotope Enrichment of Different Positions in an Antibiotic Peptide by NMR,” J. Mag. Res. 1997125, 120-131.

95. Pitlik, J.; Townsend, C. A. “The Fate of [2,3,3-2H3, 1,2-13C2]-d,l-Glycerate in Clavulanic Acid Biosynthesis,” Chem. Commun. 1997, 225-226.

94. Mani, N. S.; Townsend, C. A. “A Concise Synthesis of (+)-Cerulenin from a Chiral Oxiranyllithium,” J. Org. Chem. 199762, 636-640.

93. Egan, L. A.; Busby, R. W.; Iwata-Reuyl, D.; Townsend, C. A. “The Probable Role of Clavaminic Acid as the Terminal Intermediate in the Common Pathway to Clavulanic Acid and the Antipodal Clavam Metabolites,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1997119, 2348-2355.

92. Silva, J. C.; Townsend, C. A. “Heterologous Expression, Isolation, and Characterization of Versicolorin B Synthase from Aspergillus parasiticus: A Key Enzyme in the Aflatoxin B1 Biosynthetic Pathway,” J. Biol. Chem. 1997272, 804-813.

91. Watanabe, C. H. M.; Wilson, D.; Linz, J. E.; Townsend, C. A. “Demonstration of the Catalytic Roles and Evidence for the Physical Association of Type I Fatty Acid Synthases and a Polyketide Synthase in the Biosynthesis of Aflatoxin B1,” Chem. & Biol. 19963, 463-469.

90. McGuire, S. M.; Silva, J. C.; Casillas, E. G.; Townsend, C. A. “Purification and Characterization of Versicolorin B Synthase from Aspergillus parasiticus. Catalysis of the Stereodifferentiating Cyclization in Aflatoxin Biosynthesis Essential to DNA Interaction,” Biochemistry 199635, 11470-11486.

89. Silva, J. C.; Minto, R. E.; Barry III, C. E.; Holland, K. A.; Townsend, C. A. “Isolation and Characterization of the Versicolorin B Synthase Gene from Aspergillus parasiticus: Expansion of the Aflatoxin B1 Biosynthetic Gene Cluster,” J. Biol. Chem. 1996271, 13600-13608.

88. Busby, R. W.; Townsend, C. A. “A Single Monomeric Iron Center in Clavaminate Synthase Catalyzes Three Non-Successive Oxidative Transformations,” Bioorg. Med. Chem. 19964, 1059-1064.

87. Watanabe, C. M. H.; Townsend, C. A. “Incorporation of Molecular Oxygen in Aflatoxin B1 Biosynthesis,” J. Org. Chem. 1996, 61, 1990-1993.

86. Chatterjee, M.; Smith, P. J.; Townsend, C. A. “The Role of the Aminosugar and Helix Binding in the Thiol-Induced Activation of Calicheamicin for DNA Cleavage,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1996118, 1938-1948.